This post will be dedicated to installing and configuring a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B as a War Pi device. It will use much of the War Pi 2.0 instructions and adds in some of the updates that were made to the build after the original post. Please refer to the post Using War Pi 2.0 for general usage after completing the build.
(Updated to remove multiple WiFi sources for Pi3 – looking into functionality issues with that configuration. Pi2 works well with multiple adapters)
- Raspberry Pi 3 Model B (also known as Pi 3)
- 2016-11-25-raspbian-jessie-lite installed to microSD (>8GB preferred)
- SSH access to the freshly installed OS
- Internet access for Pi to download updates
- 1 x USB GPS (GlobalSat BU353S4)
- USB Wireless adapter, capable of promiscuous mode (1 x TP-Link WN-722N 802.11 b/g/n
or 1 x Alfa AWUS051NH v2 802.11 a/b/g/n)
- Battery power source (2A or better preferred)
Prior to downloading and installing Kismet, there are some dependencies that have to be met.
Run raspi-config to expand the filesystem to to use all the space on the microSD card. Refer to the Raspberry Pi documentation for further details. You can also take an opportunity to set a static IP address.
First, determine what IP address you want to use. I selected one that is outside my DHCP range on my home network, and one I was confident would not conflict with other static addresses.
# sudo vi /etc/dhcpcd.conf <- make sure to type the exact file name
Add the following lines to the bottom of the file. (using your own IP addressing scheme):
Save the file and reboot. You should now be able to SSH into the static IP address every time you are connected via Ethernet.
Update the environment before adding the additional packages.
# sudo apt-get update
# sudo apt-get upgrade
Now install the following packages that are dependencies for Kismet:
# sudo apt-get install gpsd
# sudo apt-get install libncurses5 libncurses5-dev
# sudo apt-get install libnl1 libnl-dev
# sudo apt-get install libpcap-dev libpcap0.8 libpcap0.8-dev
The following command will download the most recent Wireshark IEEE OUI file for Kismet to correlate detected MACs to manufacturers. This step is optional.
# wget -O manuf “https://code.wireshark.org/review/gitweb?p=wireshark.git;a=blob_plain;f=manuf;hb=HEAD”
# sudo cp manuf /etc/.
Download and Extract Kismet
The version used for this build was Kismet 2016-07-R1.
# wget https://www.kismetwireless.net/code/kismet-2016-07-R1.tar.xz
Note: If you get an SSL error using wget, add ‘–no-check-certificate’ to ignore certificate checking.
Once downloaded, extract the files, then navigate into the new directory that was created.
# sudo tar –xf kismet-2016-07-R1.tar.xz
# cd kismet-2016-07-R1/
Compile and Install Kismet
Kismet follows the standard build process, first you run the configuration script. You may receive some warnings, but if all dependencies are met, then proceed to compile. Compiling takes some time, and you will see warnings, mostly about unused variables. No need for concern unless Kismet does not work later, then you can go back and review the warnings, and check in at the Kismet forums or IRC to see if anyone else has a similar issue.
# sudo ./configure
# sudo make dep
# sudo make
# sudo make install
Kismet must be configured to store logs, use the correct wireless adapter(s), and use GPS. Configuration is done in the kismet.conf file that is in /usr/local/etc. (NOT /etc)
# sudo vi /usr/local/etc/kismet.conf
(or use the editor of your choice)
The following are the parameters I modified, all other fields were left to default.
Now that we have set the logging to /home/pi/kismet, we need to create that directory.
# sudo mkdir /home/pi/kismet
# sudo chmod 777 /home/pi/kismet
Confirm the ‘ncsource’ parameter is set as follows: (wlan0 is used by the Pi3 internal WiFi)
GPSD must be configured to address the GPS device, and to automatically start up when booting. Connect the USB GPS. Confirm that the system recognizes it.
# dmesg | grep ttyUSB0
This command should display something like: “usb 1-1.5: pl2303 converter now attached to ttyUSB0” This confirms the serial driver for the USB GPS is in place.
Edit the GPSD startup file in /etc/default.
# cd /etc/default
# sudo vi gpsd
The following are the parameters I modified, all other fields were left to default:
NOTE: if your GPS is connected to a different device name, substitute it as needed. The following command must be run every time the /etc/default/gpsd file is modified or updated.
# sudo dpkg-reconfigure gpsd
Configure GPS to SetTime
The War Pi 2.0 was not getting system time from the network when it is running in standalone mode. As a result, the log files were getting written with old dates and time. To fix this, I used a script from a fellow wardriver (JD) and made a tweak or two. The script is in a file I created called GPSTimeUpdate.
# sudo vi GPSTimeUpdate
#extracts time from GPS
GPSLINE=`gpspipe -w | head -10 | grep TPV | head -1`
#pull date and time from valid TPV line
GPSDATE=`echo $GPSLINE | sed -r 's/.*"time":"([^"]*).*/\1/'`
#set system time to GPS time
date -s "$GPSDATE"
This script is then modified as an executable, and copied into the /usr/bin directory.
# sudo chmod +x GPSTimeUpdate
# sudo cp GPSTimeUpdate /usr/bin/.
To execute the command on startup, I added it to the /etc/rc.local file. This startup file is the last to execute on startup, for all run levels.
# sudo vi /etc/rc.local
# This script is executed at the end of each multiuser runlevel.
# Make sure that the script will "exit 0" on success or any other
# value on error.
# In order to enable or disable this script just change the execution
# By default this script does nothing.
# Print the IP address
_IP=$(hostname -I) || true
if [ "$_IP" ]; then
printf "My IP address is %s\n" "$_IP"
Configure Kismet Startup
Similar to GPSD, we are going to configure Kismet to start automatically on bootup. Unlike GPSD, there is no pre-existing file to configure so we will build one from scratch, called ‘kismet’. This will also allow us to issue stop and start commands like other services. We are also building in a 30 second startup delay to allow time for the GPS and wireless adapter to start.
# cd /etc/init.d
# sudo vi kismet
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: kismet
# Required-Start: $all
# Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $syslog $network
# Default-Start: 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: Start kismet at boot time
# Description: Starts kismet at boot time
### END INIT INFO
case "$1" in
echo "Starting kismet"
echo "Stopping kismet"
echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/kismet start|stop"
Once the script has been saved, make it executable.
# sudo chmod +x kismet
Activate the script to start at the appropriate runlevels.
# sudo update-rc.d kismet defaults
Now you can stop and start the Kismet at will. This is useful after a capture session to shut down the kismet server gracefully.
To stop kismet after booting:
# sudo /etc/init.d/kismet stop
To start again, issue the start command.
# sudo /etc/init.d/kismet start
Everything should be set up to automatically start collecting data. Shut down the War Pi (if it is not already off), connect your WiFi adapter(s) and GPS, and then add power.
If something is not going right, verify all the steps here were completed without any errors. Leave a comment if you find errors, or have a better way to do things.